Jumat, 12 Desember 2008

General Overview on Interpreting

Translation in general covers written and oral rendering; written translation covers wide range of fields: sacred text (Bible & Vedas), scientific text, legal, economic, medical and literary.
On the other hand, interpreting deals with oral translation in which the rendering of the message is conducted immediately after the utterances delivered by the speaker, in special communication situation, to bridge participants` gap in language between the addressor and the addressee and the rendering is delivered by the help of an interpreter as a mediator. According to Pochhacker (2004), interpreting is a form translation in which a first and the final rendition in another language is produced on the basis of one time presentation of an utterance in a source language.
In addition Setton (1999), notes that interpreting is a process by which a spoken language or utterance takes place in one language which is intended or presumed to convey the same meaning as previously existing utterance in another language.
Interpreting has been conducted to mediate participants of communication of whom having different language background as well they do not speak the language acquire by each of them, so an interpreter is needed to mediate the gaps of the communication between those two participants. Interpreting involver three ways communication speaker- interpreter (function as hearer and speaker) – hearer

Both written translation and interpreting are belong to the field of translation studies but the focus of the attention is different one another. Written translation covers the field on the written text ranging from scientific documents, legal, economic, sacred text, literary text and manuals. Written translation is not delivered directly but in certain time according to the need of the client and can use the aids of dictionaries, team work and prove reading as well as the help of expert in which type of text is going to be translated. In terms of time duration written translation may acquire more time before it is considered as final work.
Interpreting (oral translation) focuses on the time of the rendering immediately after the delivery of the utterances from the speaker, the interpreters renders the message of the speaker to the hearer. Interpreting as an oral translation is delivered in communication situation, where the needs of attention is focused on the message of the utterance of the SL and the transfer of the message to the TL
Interpreting has different mode to the written translation, this type of translation is conducted almost at the same time the message of the SL delivered. The stretch of time given to the interpreter/translator is very short, so the interpreter should bare in mind the topic of the subject that is going to be interpreted, who are involved in the communication and the context of situation where the communication takes place. There are three types of interpreting: simultaneous, consecutive, and liaison ( Hatim and Ian Mason, 1996).
In simultaneous interpreting, the transfer of the message of the SL to the TL is
conducted at more or less at the same time. And in consecutive interpreting the focus of the transfer comes after the SL message has been delivered, and it tends to concentrate on the information relevant to the text structure and context. While liaison interpreting, the focus of the interpreter is maintaining the continuity of exchange of the message of the participants in the communication.
According to Pochhaher (2004) interpreting viewed from the modes of rendering there are two modes: they are consecutive and simultaneous interpreting, they are differentiated based on the pace of time of the rendering. Simultaneous interpreting the
rendering is conducted almost at the same time as the flow of the utterance from the
speaker to the interpreter and the interpreter at the same pace of time renders the message of the utterance of the speaker to the hearer. Mostly simultaneous interpreting is delivered in international conference where the interpreter stays behind in the booth while she/he renders the message of the SL to the TL. Conversely, in consecutive interpreting; the utterance of the speaker may be uttered in certain pace of time when the speaker makes a pause then the interpreter starts to interpret the message of the source language to the target language, this type of mode is conducted based on the needs of the user (client). The differences between simultaneous and consecutive interpretation is on the amount of time elapses between the delivery of the source utterance and the delivery of the interpretation.
Rendering in consecutive interpreting can be rendered in certain chunk of utterances, approximately in a few minutes of utterances or shortly after the speaker has
uttered few sentences, this depends on the needs where the communication takes place. According to Santiago (2005) in the mode of consecutive interpreting the interpretation of the complete message is delivered after the speaker has stopped producing the source utterances. At the time of the interpretation is rendered and the interpreter is the only person in the communication environment who is producing a message.

In other to be able to interpret a text (presented orally) the interpreter must be able to receive and understand the incoming message then express its meaning in the target language . To accomplish this task, the interpreter must go through the overlapping series of cognitive processing activities:
- attending the message
- concentrating on the task at hand
- remembering the message
- comprehending the meaning of the message
- analyzing the meaning for the message
- visualizing the message non verbally ,
- and finally reformulating the message in the target language.
Seleskovitch (1978) compresses these task into noting that “the immediate and deliberate discarding of the wording and retention of the mental representation of the message;” and interpreters often refer to this as ”dropping form”. By discarding the form
(words, structure etc.) of the source text the interpreter is free to concentrate on extracting
and analyzing the meaning of the text, and conceiving the strategies for formulating the
message into the target language. She also points out there is a practical reason for interpreter to discard the form of the source text , as there is only so much that a person can hold in their Short-Term Memory. When the interpreter receives the source text the information passes initially through his/her STM (Short Term Memory). If the interpreter does not do anything with this information it will soon disappear.
Smith (1985) notes that “STM has a very duration. We can remember six or seven items only as long as we give all our attention to them. .If an interpreter attempts to retain the form of a source utterance his/her STM will be quickly filled with individual lexical items, which may not even compose a full sentence. As the limitation of the STM that interpreter is required to drop form and concentrate on meaning. Both Smith and Seleskovitch propose that meaningful segment of a great size can be placed into a long term memory (LTM) and retrieved after. Of course a chunk of information must be understood in other to be meaningful.

The setting or the social context of interactions in which the interpretation carried out viewed as the historical phenomenon where members of different linguistics and cultural communities entered into contact for some particular purpose. Apart from such contact between social entities in various inter-social settings, mediated communication is also conceivable within hetero-lingual societies, in which case we can speak of in intra-social settings.
Intra social setting, the first mediated contact between communities speaking different languages will have served the purpose of trading and exchanging goods, of doing business, which would give business interpreting as a `primeval` type of interpreting. Hoof in Pochhaher (2004) notes that business interpreting as the form carried out commercial negotiation as a liaison interpreting.
Inter-social interpreting covers broader areas of setting such as in court, legal interpreting, health -care interpreting , media interpreting and other related fields.
From the description above can be drawn some views on the contact and setting of the interpreting carried out
Isolated contact
Missionary work

Institutionalized contact

Trade and business

Colonial administration
Law and justice
Religious service
Public service

Constellation of Interpreting derived from the situational interaction, the model prototypical as noted by Anderson (2002)

A three party interaction with bilingual interpreter assuming the pivotal mediating role between two monolingual client, this is often call bilateral/ dialog interpreting; if it is conducted in business it often called as liaison interpreting.
In multilateral communication and institution where a conference is held represented by many delegates , the mediator is needed to delivered the message as some of the members do not speak the language of the person who delivered the speech in the conference this constellation is called conference interpreting . The needs of interpreter in this kind of communication might be more than one depending on the need of mediation in the communication situation.
While community interpreting covers a wide range of interpreting ranging from: health care interpreting , legal interpreting( court, and other legal proceedings), as mostly conducted as social service interpreting.
The professional interpreters need training and tests of their quality in conducting the interpretation, especially those who are employed by public institution. In the US, special certification should be made whether an interpreter meets a certain minimum standard for example federal certification programs for Spanish, Haitian Creole and Navajo for the District Court Interpreters, as it is stated in The Court Interpreters Act of 1978.
In order to be professional, interpreter needs training; this cover a wide range of knowledge according to the field of the interpreter going to be specialized in such as: conference interpreter, media or court interpreters in whichever languages they are concerning .
This training basically should introduced memory training for the beginner in attending the message of the SL before it will be transfer to the TL ( Zhong, 2003).The purpose of memory training (STM) in interpreting is to achieve a better understanding of the source language , which will lead to adequate interpreting – memory in consecutive interpreting consists of nothing more than understanding which is conveyed by the words. Understanding is the first step in successful interpreting; therefore memory training is to be provided in the early stage of interpreter training.
Memory functions differently in consecutive and simultaneous interpreting because the duration of memory is longer in CI than in SI. There are different methods of training STM for SI and CI respectively. Interpreting starts with the encoding of

information from the original speaker. According to Gile`s effort model, interpreting is STM-centered activity; the process of interpreting could be re-postulated into:
Encoding of information the SL +storing information + Retrieval of information + Decoding information in to the TL

In consecutive interpreting, there is probably up to 15 minutes (depending on the speaker`s segment) for the interpreter to encode and then store the information and the interpreter stars to retrieve information and decode it into the TL. While in SI, encoding and decoding of information happen almost at the same time. The duration for storing the information is very limited. Therefore, in the first step of interpreting, encoding (understanding) information uttered in the SL is the key to memory training.
There are three main possibilities in storing information in STM: (1) Acoustic coding, (2) visual coding and (3) semantic coding. Visual coding may be used by interpreters in conference situations with multimedia. Notes in interpreting are to assist in such visual coding of information. But in most interpreting contexts, interpreter will depend on acoustic and semantic. Therefore, exercises should be designed for this purpose. The following methods are recommended:
Retelling in the SL: the instructor either reads or plays recording of a text of about 200 words for the trainees to retell in the same language. The trainees should not be allowed to take any notes. In the first instance, trainees should be encouraged to retell the text in the same words of the original to the largest possible extent.
The following tactics should be used by trainees after certain time of retelling:
categorizing: grouping items of the same properties; generalization :drawing conclusion
from particular examples or message from provided text: comparison: noticing the differences and similarities between different things , facts and events: description describing a scene, a shape, or a size of an object, etc.
Trainees are encouraged to describe, summarize and abstract the original to a large in their own words. Shadowing exercise: which is defined as “a paced, auditory tracking task which involves the immediate vocalization of auditory presented stimuli, i.e., word-for word repetition in the same language , of a message presented through a headphone”(Lambert,1899). This kind of exercise is recommended for training of simultaneous interpreting, especially in splitting of attention skills and the STM in SI.
Another, effective memory training is mnemonic to memory in which the basic principle is to use as many of the best functions of the human brain as possible to encode information. As human brain has evolved to encode and interpret complex stimuli-images, colour, structure, sounds, smells, tastes, touch, spatial awareness, emotion, and language- using them to make sophisticated interpretations of the environment

Interpreting is an oral form of translation in which a spoken language or utterance take place in one language that is presumed to convey the same as previously existing utterance in another language. It focuses on the time duration of the rendition of the SL into the TL. Interpreting is conducted in three- party communication by the present of an interpreter to bridge the gaps of communication between the addressor and the addressee and the interpreter functions as the mediator in the communication situation.
As both the speaker and the hearer belong to different language and cultural background , and in condition that they need the mediator to bridge their communication as the speaker doesn`t have the knowledge of the hearer and vice-versa .

Hatim, Basil and Ian Mason.1996.Discourse and The Translator .London: Longman

Santiago, Roberto.2005”Consecutive Interpreting: a Brief Review.
Http://home. Interlink.net/-terperto/id.html

Seleskovich, Danica and Lederer, Marianne.1978.Interpreter Pour Tradiure. Paris:
Didier Erudition.

Setton, Robin.1999.Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Pragmatic
Analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamin

Smith, AH.1985. Aspect of Translation Studies in Communication 2.London: Secher and

Pochhaker, Franz.2004.Introducing Interpreting Studies. Routledge: New York

Zhong,Weihe. 2003..”Memory Traning in Interpreting. In Translation Journal and the
Author 2003. URl:http://accurapid.com/journal/25interpret htm

Kamis, 27 November 2008





Historically, translation began with the spread of Christianity in the West in the early days, such as in Britain and other parts of the European countries. In beginning translation mostly covered the field of Bible translation in accordance with the spread Christianity and missionaries into every parts of the globe. As the result there were many version of Bible written in various languages.
The advancement of technology and the growth of international communication, made a great history to the field of translation. The growth of Translation Studies as separate discipline is a success story of the 1980s (Bassnett, 1995). The subject has developed in many parts of the world and clearly destined to continue developing well into the 21st century. Translation studies bring together work in a wide variety of fields, including linguistics, literary study, history, anthropology, psychology and economics. This series of books will reflect the breath of work in translation studies and will enable readers to share in the exciting new developments that are taking place at the present time.
Translation is of course rewriting of an original text. All rewriting of the original texts, whatever their intention, reflect a certain ideology and poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society in a given way.
There are many definitions of translations, but almost all of them discussing the same matter. The differences lie on the focus of the work of translation.

According to Bell (1991), translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language. Translation covers at least three terms that have to be distinguished: a translator, translating and a translation.
A translator is the person who conducts the work / or translating the text from the original (SL) into the second language (TL). Translating is the process to translate (the activity rather than the tangible object). A translation is the product of the process of translating (the translated text).

Concerning the modes of translation, there are three ie: written translation, written – from – oral (such as screen subtitling) and interpreting/oral translation (Hatim,1996). Written translation covers the translation of written text (SL) transferred into TL of written text as well. The written translation includes: religious text (Bible) text books, documents, law, literary, and so on.
Oral translation (interpreting) covers three basic forms: liaison, consecutive and simultaneous. In interpreting, the transfer of the SL message to the TL is conducted immediately after the SL is delivered (almost at the same time).
Written-from-oral translation (translation on screen subtitling), in this mode of translation where the translator does not transfer the spoken SL (from the screen) as a whole text like in interpreting but give subtitling to the picture to help the audience (in the TL) to get the message of the actual context in the motion picture.

In this type of translation mode the translator has to be apt with the context of the dialogue in the picture, in order not to mislead the information content of the SL in the TL (subtitling), especially if she/he is confronted with a stretch of long dialogue among the characters in the pictures.

Among the three modes of translation, written translation covers the widest range of fields of translated works. In accordance with the advancement and the need of transferring the message to every part of the globe as the result of the globalization era, in the recent time, translation of any type of information is necessary. The international relations among many countries bring the work of translation into an outstanding progress. The agreement between countries, legal treaty, commerce, text books on the advancement of science, technology, literary; they all are being translated into great number of languages. The need of translation in this modern era is very significant to enhance the spread of information into the community worldwide. Focusing on the written text translation, each field of translation has different approach in the work of translation.
In Bible and Qur`anic verse, or sacred text translation, the translators have to bare in mind in the politeness, maxim of cooperative linguistics behavior (manner), a part from the context of situation and the culture of either the SL or the TL. For example in Bible translation to translate literally the expression “he beat his breast”(speaking of repentant publican, Luke18: 13) into Chokwe language of Central Africa, this phrase actually means “to congratulate oneself” or the English equivalent is “pat oneself on the back”(Nida,1975:25).
A Qur`anic verse translation, translated by some experts turn into different
versions: 1. For what cause should I not serve Him who hath created me, and unto ye will
be brought back ?(Pickhall).
2. Why should I not serve him who has created me and to whom you shall all be
recalled? (Dawood)
3.And why should I not serve him who originated me and unto whom you shall
be returned?(Arberry)
From the above translations, the sermonizing clause 1 (and unto whom ye will be brought back) is a weak `representative` statement that is too distant even to serve as a `reminder`. This than placed against the background of an initial clause (the introspective For what cause I should not serve Him who hath created me) which relays self-serving defiance (`why shouldn`t I? Give me a reason!). Thus both clauses in the translation are inadequate in terms of rhetorical contrast (powerless vs. powerful) which is crucial to the argument.
In translation (2) and (3), the second clause features the modal shall which appropriately gives an edge to the intended sermonizing, but the contrast is still absent. The sermonizing is set against the background of the same self-seeking defiance as in translation (1). The translation of the first clause in translation (1), (2), and (3) may be compared with a suggested rendering (Hatim, 1996) `How can I but serve Him who has created me` which relays less choice and more commitment on the part of the addresser in the narrative. In fact, it is the thematic focus which the suggested translation reflects as closely as possible:àIt would not be reasonable in me if I did not serve him who created me and to whom you shall all be brought back (Yusuf Ali)

Literary Translation covers the translation of literature such: poems, drama and prose. The approach to literary translation depends on the types of the literary work and the target audience/reader of the translated text. In literary translation, the main focus should be considered is the domain of context, namely register membership, through the analysis of an instance of register variation. The literary language in terms of use and user-related categories of register variation, issues of common concern to literary and no-literary translating will emerge to contribute a unified text strategy. From this perspective encompasses both the use of pragmatics and semiotics approaches in shaping the actual structure and the texture of the text.
Some examples of poem, short story /folktale and novel translations are cited as follows:

(a) The translation of the poem below is taken from the book Poems about Bali by Bali`s major Poets - translated into English by Vern Cork.

SL (Indonesian) TL(English)

Dan sesajen manakah yang terpelihara? And to which offering are to be maintained?
Aku nyusup mencari sumber bunyi I furtively seek the source of the sound
Datang makna tanpa batas Meaning comes without boundaries
tak temu rupa of unknown form
sudah lebur united with
para roh leluhur the spirits of the ancestor
katamu semua tuju You say of all desires
biarkanlah! Cak cak cak! Let them go! Chak chak chak!
Aum Bur Buah Suah! Oh Lord, ruler of the earth, the sky and the heaven
(Ngurah Parsua) (translated by Vern Cork)

(b) Translation of the novel `Sukreni Gadis Bali` (Tisna,1936) into `The Rape of Sukreni (Quinn,1998), a paragraphs is cited from the novel of the SL and the TL

Di kedai Men Negara At Men Negara`s Food stall
Di pinggir jalan yang berkelok-kelok, Off the side of the narrow road that
di antara kebun-kebun kelapa menuju twisted through the coconut groves on
ke Bingin Banjah, desa yang belum the way to the village of Bingin Banjah was
dapat disebut desa benar,hanya sekum- a hut. A newcomer to the village – if Bingin
pulan rumah-rumah orang tani saja, Banjah could be called a village, for it was
adalah sebuah kedai.Orang yang mula- little more than a cluster of peasants` home-
mula datang ke situ tidaklah akan me- might be forgiven for not knowing that the
nyangka, bahwa rumah itu adalah kedai hut was infact a food stall. After all, the stall
apalagi letaknya tidak di pinggir jalan wasn`t even directly on the side of the road,
benar, melainkan dalam pekarangan yang but at some distance and within a fenced-in
berpagar. Akan masuk ke situ melalui piece of ground which had a bamboo gate
sebuah pintu bamboo dahulu. to mark its entrance.

c) Translation of Folk-tale Dr Heidegger`s Experiment (Howthorne1987) into Eksperiment Dr. Heidegger (Puspani,2003). The citation below is the translation of a paragraph from the folk tale to illustrate different type of literary text.

SL(English) TL (Indonesian)
Dr. Heidegger’s Experimen Eksperimen Dr. Heidegger
That very unusual man, old Dr. Heidegger, Pada suatu saat, Dr. Heidegger, seorang dokter
once invited four aged friends to meet him tua yang sangat aneh mengundang empat orang
in his study. There were three white-bearded teman yang berusia lanjut untuk menemuinya
gentlemen, Mr. Medbourne, Colonel Killigrew di ruang bacanya. Ketiga orang lelaki yang ber-
and Mr. Gascoigne and a drilled-up old lady, jenggot putih itu adalah: Mr. Medbourne,
whose name was the Widow Wycerly. They Kolonel Killigrew dan Mr. Gascoigne serta
were all sad, old creatures, who had been seorang perempuan tua kurus yang bernama
unfortunate in life. Their worst luck was Widow Wycerly. Mereka semuanya sedih,
that they had not gone into their graves makhluk-makhluk yang tidak beruntung dalam
long ago hidupnya. Hal yang paling buruk bahwa mereka
tetap hidup dan seharusnya mereka telah lama
masuk dalam kubur.

Legal translation includes all the translations regarding with the law, in this type of translation focuses more towards the appropriateness of the context either the SL or of the TL terms. The citation below is a translation of labour agreement of Sheraton Nusa Indah Resort entitled `Kesepakatan Kerja Bersama` and its translation `Collective Labour Agreement` which describes some illustration of the legal translation.
SL (Indonesian) TL(English)
Pasal 4 Article 4
Dispensasi dan Fasilitas Bagi Serikat Dispensation and Facilities for the
Pekerja Labour Union

1. Pengusaha akan memberikan ijin atau 1.The company will give permission or
dispensasi kepada pengurus Serikat Pekerja dispensation to Labour Union Committee
dan perangkatnya untuk meninggalkan and its instruments to leave their duties on
pekerjaannya pada waktu tertentu dengan certain time with full payment to conduct
upah penuh untuk menjalankan tugas the organization duties/tasks like:
organisasi seperti:
.Rapat Intern organisai . Organizational Internal meeting
.Rapat konsultasi atau koordinasi dengan . Consultation or Coordination Meeting
pihak terkait di dalam perusahaan with related parties within the company


Interpreting has different mode to the written translation, this type of translation is conducted almost at the same time the message of the SL delivered. The stretch of time given to the interpreter/translator is very short, so the interpreter should bare in mind the topic of the subject that is going to be interpreted, who are involved in the communication and the context of situation where the communication takes place. There are three types of interpreting: simultaneous, consecutive, and liaison (Hatim,1996).
In simultaneous interpreting, the transfer of the message of the SL to the TL is
conducted at more or less at the same time. And in consecutive interpreting the focus of the transfer comes after the SL message has been delivered, and it tends to concentrate on the information relevant to the text structure and context. While liaison interpreting, the focus of the interpreter is maintaining the continuity of exchange of the message of the participants in the communication.
SL speaker (French)

Bien entendu, un tel effort de clarification et de codification ne saurait pretendre
.a` re`soudre tous les problemes..Je n`en citerai que queques – uns (Hatim,1996:65)

Interpreter( communicate the SL message in English)

[ Of course, such an effort of clarification and codification could not claim to solve all the
problems…I just cite just some of these]

In screen translation the translator has to work from oral SL language into a written form of TL. This type of translation has to cooperate with the communication situation of the moving picture, the dialogues, the characters and all type of speech acts within the communication situation. The subtitling has to match the content of the message in the dialogue of the picture/film.
The example below describes a screen translation of a film, Stephane, a violin maker, is attracted to Camille, a musician, who is involve in a close relationship with Stephane`s colleague, Maxime.

SL (dialogue in French) TL (Subtitling in English)
-Ca vous convient? Like it?
[Does that suit you]

-Oui,m…. Yes, but…..

-Dites Go on.

- Vous n`avez pas jouuue` un peu vite? You took it a bit fast.
[Didn`t you play a bit fast?]

- Si. Vous voulez l`entendre a` sa vitese. Yes. You want to hear it at the right
[Yes. You wish to hear it at its normal pace] tempo? (Hatim, 1996:85)

The translator of screen subtitling, has to work out with various points of the situation communication in the dialogue of the film and then match it with the subtitling in order to retain the message of the oral SL into the TL written form. The audience of the TL text is also considered in doing the transfer of the SL oral form into the written TL form, such as the acceptability and the politeness of the screen translation.

Translation as branch of linguistics, it does not merely concern with the languages within which the translation is conducted (the SL and TL) but also related to many other fields including history, anthropology, psychology and economics. For example a translation of a novel is concerned with funding of the project, the target audience, the culture of both SL and TL, the history and the market of the TL text. So in a translation project it involves: text, target, team and tools (Larson1997).
Text means any type of the text that is going to be translated (literary, sacred text, or scientific). Target means the audience of the translated text (age, social status or the community in general). Team refers to the people who are involved in the project (experts of both SL and TL, experts in the field of the text that is going to be translated
and consultants). While tools covers the dictionaries and cultural description of both SL and TL, typewriter, computer, printer and duplicator or photocopy machine.


In this recent development of the 21st century, translation is significant as it involves with many other disciplines of science. It covers a wide range of fields in this modern era from the translation of Bible, Qur`anic verse, Vedas, literature, Science and technology, screen subtitling and interpreting.
In this recent development, interpreting has very prominent position in international seminar, high summit among nations, international court cases. That is why translation in the recent time and in the future becomes significant to the development of the globalization era to transmit any information.

Bassnett, Susan and Andre Lefevere.1995.Translation, Culture and History.
Great Britain: Biddles Limited.

Bell, Roger T.1991.Translation and Translating.London:Longman.
Cork, Vern. 2000. Bali The Morning After. NSW Australia: Darma Printing.
Hatim, Basil and Ian Mason,1996. The Translator as a Communicator.
London: Routledge.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. 1987.American Literary Classic. Washington, D.C:
United States Information Agency.
Larson, Mildred L.1998.Meaning-Based Translation. New York: University
Press of America.
Puspani, Ida Ayu Made. 2003.Terjemahan Cerita Rakyat Amerika. Unpublished.
Wijaya, I..G.Pt. 2000.Kesepakatan Kerja Bersama.Denpasar: Departemen Tenaga
Tisna,Panji.A.A.P.1991.Sukreni Gadis Bali. Jakarta:Balai Pustaka. Tisna,Panji.A.A.P.1991.Translated by George Quinn. The Rape of Sukreni.1998.
Jakarta:balai Pustaka.